Frequently asked questions

Welcome to the section dedicated to surface finishing technologies! Here you will find useful information to understand the latest innovations in this field, how they are used, and what their advantages are.


Roller coating

01 Which materials are suitable for roller coating?
All materials are. The only requirement is to have a flat surface.

Examples of products suitable for roller coating:
  • cabinet doors
  • parquet
  • doors
Examples of materials suitable for roller coating:
  • wood and wood-based materials
  • glass
  • cork
  • plastic
  • fibre cement
  • metal
  • roll-to-roll for edges etc.
02 What are the advantages of roller coating?

High flexibility in terms of output rate and choice of cycles/processes according to the line make-up.

Zero solvent emissions thanks to 95% use of products with high dry residue (UV) content.

Possibility of using the roller technique for any application on all flat surfaces.

03 How can I rate the quality of roller coating?

The quality of the paint finish is highly subjective. However, opacity and gloss, and obviously, the degree of application, can all be rated.

04 What consumption values should be considered?

Coating product consumption and consumption of solvents required for cleaning the machines in the coating line should certainly be considered and evaluated. Each step of the roller coating process must be monitored in terms of the quantity applied, for each individual machine. Quantities, in fact, may vary according to the type of substrate treated.

05 Can I also coat shaped panels with a roller?

Today, thanks to the SmartCoater PRO series and the choice of specially designed rollers, in some cases it is possible to apply UV primers on cabinet doors and specially shaped doors. This refers to primer application. After the intermediate sanding phase, finishing is carried out with spray coating machines.

06 Can I have a roller coating machine and a spray coating machine in the same line?

Yes. It often happens to have coating lines consisting of roller coating machines for primer/insulating product application followed by spray coating machines for finishing.

07 How long does it take to clean a machine?

The average time required to clean a roller coating machine was 20 minutes. A critical variable was the use of clear or pigmented coats. Today, with our new semi-automatic system, considerably less time is needed for an operator to carry out cleaning. Additionally, the consumption of solvents is heavily reduced, with resulting advantages in terms of efficiency and sustainability also in the roller coating process.

08 Can paint consumption be controlled?

An automatic system is being developed, designed to monitor the parameters relating to the consumption of coating products also in roller coating machines.

09 How many workers are needed to operate a coating line?

The number of operators required for the correct operation of a roller coating line depends on the complexity and length of the line. We can reasonably expect that 2-3 people will be needed to work on the line.

10 Is it better to coat or laminate surfaces?

Lamination and roller coating are two different processes. A coated product is generally considered more sophisticated than a product laminated with paper or plastic film. Laminating a panel is practical when we have to process small production batches.

Roller coating, on the other hand, is definitely more cost-effective to treat matt or glossy methacrylate sheets.

11 Is a coating machine very maintenance-intensive?

No. The most delicate part is the rubber roller which will have to be surface-ground or re-coated. There are also normal wear parts that need to be replaced: scrapers, pumps, etc.

12 Is there a locally based maintenance service for my roller coating line?

Our international network of distributors and branch facilities is widespread globally, and most likely, you'll easily find the right contact in your own country. Otherwise, in just a few days we will send spare parts and technicians straight from our headquarters.

13 In the roller coating process, are the edges also coated?

Roller coating machines can only coat flat surfaces. There are some special cases in which a special machine with a soft roller can be used to coat bevelled parts, too. This is the case for example with the beveled side of parquet flooring, where the bevel reaches up to 4 mm.

14 What finishes can I achieve using roller coating lines?

Thanks to roller coating technologies, various degrees of finish can be obtained, either clear or pigmented, matt, semi-gloss or glossy. Additionally, since the roller lines are made up of a number of applications, aluminium dioxide- or corundum-based coats can be applied in order to achieve high surface abrasion strength.

15 What do I need besides the roller coating machine in my line?

Downstream from each roller painting machine, a gelling/drying oven is needed. It can be either a UV or a hot air oven according to the type of coat applied. In addition, machines for sanding primer coats, brushing machines for cleaning the panels and conveying machines along the line are needed.

16 How can I increase the output rate of my coating line?

On roller coating lines, it is quite simple. Depending on the output demand, we can calculate the line speed and then decide how many UV lamps are needed to be able to gel or dry the finish coats at that precise speed. This helps to respond effectively to required changes in output rate.

17 What is the degree of flexibility of the roller coating machine?

The machines are flexible both in terms of product quantities to be applied, and in terms of versatiliy - being suitable for different applications, at various locations along the line.

18 What aspects of sustainability are covered by roller coating?

In roller coating machines, 100% UV acrylic products, as well as water-based products, can be used resulting in a highly sustainable finishing process.

19 Can I manage colour changeover in roller coating machines?

Yes. Normally, on small, low-output lines, the machines are flushed to carry out colour changeover. Otherwise, multipurpose machines are added to the lines to be able to manage colour changes very quickly.

20 Can I easily manage the programming of my workpieces?

In this respect, a roller coating line ensures maximum flexibility. It enables to process any panel shape, also in random order - as long as all the panels have the same thickness.

21 Are any service packages available for my roller coating machine/line?
Yes. A whole range of UBIQUO service packages is available for this equipment as well as for other finishing solutions.


Edge coating

01 What's needed to coat edges?
To coat edges you need a specific machine that coats, putties and sands the product edges. That's why we've designed and developed Smartedge, a machine for coating, puttying and sanding edges. It can be configured to suit the customer's specific needs, edge shape, product type and the required productivity.
02 What are the advantages of edge coating compared to a lining?
Coated edges become an integral part of the panel, ensuring insulation against steam and water after total coating with sprayers. In general, coated panels are of higher quality than lined panels.
03 What technology do I need to coat edges?
To coat edges correctly, vacuum and roller technologies are required. It all depends on the shape of the edge and the product type, which might be MDF, veneered, reconstituted veneered or wood.
04 What kinds of edges can I coat?
Edge types are generally defined by their shape: today's technologies allow manufacturers to coat all the shapes on the market.
05 What materials can I process?
MDF, veneered, reconstituted veneered or wood edges can all be processed. Chipboard products can also be assessed for edge coating.
06 What's the most suitable edge coating solution?
For quality coating of straight edges with radii and shaped edges, vacuum technology is needed. If, however, edges are straight with small radii, roller technology will be more suitable.
07 I have edges of varying thickness; is there a machine that can work with all of them?
The standard edge coating machine designed by Cefla Finishing can process panels that are between 5 and 60 mm thick.
08 How long does it take to clean a machine?
Edge coating machines are not cleaned like classic roller or spray coating machines: in fact, unless it's necessary to change the primer or finish, only the vacuum heads or rollers are covered. If, on the other hand, a colour change is needed, it takes 15 minutes with a vacuum tower or per individual roller.
09 Can coating consumption be controlled during edge coating?
Coating consumption can now be controlled manually.
10 I have a very flexible production set-up. How much time do I lose setting up the machine for production changeovers?
Where there is a specific need for high flexibility, the configuration of the machine (i.e. the number of application and sanding units) determines the machine-set-up time, which can vary from 10 to 30 minutes.
11 Is an edge coating machine very maintenance-intensive?
On a coating machine, routine maintenance involves monthly tasks such as conveyor cleaning, lubrication of ball bearing pads and all metal parts with horizontal and vertical movement.
12 Can I easily manage programming of my workpieces on edge coating machines?
Thanks to a PLC with 100 programs, Smartedge can keep tabs on production data (number of pieces machined, number of metres, number of hours worked) and belt sander/wheel inputs-outputs, tool speed and conveyor systems.
13 How can I boost productivity?
When you need to raise productivity, you can proceed in two ways:
  • reduce coating and sanding unit setting times to a minimum
  • increase the number of machines to reduce product handling
14 How flexible is the machine?
With the patented Edge & Go system, consisting of an application head with interchangeable straight or shaped slats, you can coat edges of any type, making the Smartedge machine highly flexible and user-friendly. Edge & Go, incorporated in Smartedge, lets you change the edge shape without turning off the vacuum tower. In terms of speed, switching from a straight edge with a 3 mm radius to a J-Pull handle edge, for example, takes less than 15 seconds.



01 Which coated materials need drying?
All coated materials need drying. The type, duration and method of drying differ according to the nature and quantity of the applied lacquer.
02 How many and what types of drying are there?
Mainly two categories: physical and chemical drying. The former is based on hot air, air flow speed and time, while the latter requires a source (typically lamps) to activate some internal components in the lacquer. There are also lacquers that need both of these methods.
03 What types of oven are there?
There are different types of oven: in-line, vertical and UV. The first two will dry items through a physical process and differ by size, working speed and hold times of the workpieces. UV ovens, on the other hand, are based on a chemical process and their size is smaller. The choice of an oven is determined by the type of lacquer used.
04 How do I decide which drying technique is the most suitable?
The recommended type of drying depends on the type of product and is normally defined in agreement with the lacquer manufacturer, to ensure the required coating performance over time. The coating cycle, which also includes drying, is then defined with the aim of obtaining the desired final result, reducing the required investment and optimising performance.
05 What are the advantages of drying?
Let's talk about the advantages of the whole finishing process, which includes lacquer application and drying. The "finished" item ends up with improved resistance and protection from external agents, as well as a better aesthetic presentation.
06 What is meant by excimer drying?
Excimer drying is a drying process for UV coating products, which allows surfaces to be obtained with truly outstanding deep matt finish and resistance characteristics of the coating film. Normally it is a mixed cycle, which includes the evaporation of the solvents, followed by exposure to a dedicated lamp (an excimer lamp), to end with final UV crosslinking, necessary to definitively "lock in" the obtained result. The oven Exydry-Z ensures a deep matt finish, surface resistance and soft touch effect even on shaped or raised panels.
07 What is meant by inert atmosphere drying?
Drying in an inert atmosphere is obtained by dramatically reducing the amount of oxygen present in the oven and replacing it with an inert gas, nitrogen. Considering that oxygen is the natural barrier preventing the crosslinking process, this type of drying allows a 40-70% reduction in the quantity of photoinitiator needed to start crosslinking of UV coatings, resulting in significant cost savings. The first inert atmosphere oven on the market is UV-I.
08 What are the advantages of drying in an inert atmosphere?
In addition to the dramatic reduction in photoinitiator requirements, with the resulting lower cost of lacquers, drying in an inert atmosphere ensures other advantages. The lacquer used is less harmful to the environment. The yellowing effect caused by photoinitiators is less likely. Fewer UV lamps are required to activate crosslinking, resulting in lower energy costs.
09 How can I measure drying quality?
Different systems can be used to evaluate the drying quality and characteristics to be obtained from the finishing process. For example, if we want to test the final degree of resistance of the treated item, we will use destructive tests, or tests with solvents or with abrasive tools.
10 What should I expect in terms of consumption?
Mainly, consumption is in the form of electrical power, necessary to operate the fans that blow air or to handle workpieces inside the ovens, but also to power the lamps.
11 How simple is it to use a drying oven?
Normally drying ovens are rather simple machines, only a few parameters need adjustments and most importantly, these parameters remain stable even when the lacquer colours and/or the shapes of the coated pieces change. No particular skills are therefore required; it is necessary, however, to set the temperatures for the different zones (if any), the air speed and possibly the power of the lamps (if any).
12 How long does it take to clean a drying oven?
Normally drying ovens are basically maintenance-free, as these machines do not generally get very dirty.
13 Is a drying oven very maintenance-intensive?
It depends on the type of oven but generally speaking drying ovens are low maintenance. Only vertical ovens, due to their operating mode, require some extra care because of the loads that they have to bear, but all that's required is checking, tensioning and lubricating some of their parts.
14 Is there any after-sales service available near me?
Our international network of distributors and branch facilities is widespread globally, and most likely, you'll easily find the right contact in your own country. Otherwise, in just a few days we will send spare parts and technicians straight from our headquarters.
15 Can I easily manage process scheduling including drying?
The entire coating process, or the drying part only, can be managed through recipes, therefore in a very straightforward way.
16 Are the edges dried, too?
The drying process depends on the type of coating process. If the edges are treated during the work cycle, these will obviously require drying.
17 Can any oven be associated with any coating process?
Ovens, just like the coating application machines, have specific characteristics. This makes some ovens specifically suitable for some processes, while others are more flexible and able to adapt to different types of application. For example, a vertical oven is specifically intended for raised or shaped doors, but it can also be used for flat ones.
18 How flexible is the oven?
Each oven is created with a specific objective in mind. Within the scope of these specifications, it is obviously possible to adjust some parameters including temperature, air speed, power of the lamps and lamp distance. The machines are therefore inherently flexible when operating within their design scope.
19 Can I order spare parts easily?
 Yes. You can order spare parts by email, by phone, but also using cMaster, our dedicated App for ordering spare parts.



01 What kinds of wood can be used as veneer?

Any type of wood can be used as veneer, but their flexibility varies. It depends on texture and structure. Beech and maple are quite easy to apply while macropore trees like oak and ash are more likely to crack when trying to wrap radii. 

02 Which is the maximum width and length of a veneer sheet?
The usual width would be up to 400 mm, larger widths are possible, but not economical. The common length is up to 2 metres, exceptionally up to 3 metres. 
03 Which types of glue can you use to apply veneer sheets or reels?
In former times, PVAC was widely used for veneering. Today, hot melt glues like EVA, Polyolefin and PUR are commonly applied adhesives. When it comes to pinewood, special adhesives are required because of the resin.
04 To which types of substrate can veneer sheets or veneer on reels be applied?
Typical substrates would be MDF, HDF, chipboard, wood or plywood work pieces. These can be both profiles with a 3D geometry or flat panels.
05 Is it easier to work with veneer sheets or reels?
Working with reels is more economical and means higher process safety since it is an ongoing process. Veneering with single sheets allows for higher flexibility since you can simply feed the machine with different types of veneer sheets in whatever order you need (e.g. 3 sheets of oak, 2 sheets of ash, 4 sheets of beech…).
06 Which radii can be coated with veneer?
The flexibility of the material depends on the pre-treatment and the type of wood you use. A calibrated, fleece-backed veneer on a reel treated with Hot Coating can manage nearly all radii. A raw veneer sheet could manage a 5 mm radius, still requiring special tools to do the job. 


Vacuum coating

01 Which substrate materials are suitable for vacuum coating?
Vacuum coating is suitable for wood and its derivatives, metal, plasterboard, composite materials and PVC profiles.
02 This technology is perfect for the coating of…?
This technology is ideal when coating lineal profiles in high volumes, achieving high levels of production efficiency.
03 What are the advantages of vacuum coating?
This technology has many benefits. To start with, transfer efficiency reaches an astonishing 99%. Vacuum coaters have a limited footprint, so they occupy little factory space. Production efficiency is optimised because by using a vacuum coater, 360° sanding, coating and curing of a profile is dealt with in a single pass. Overspray is absent and the process is environmentally friendly. Coating thicknesses are high and, for example, can reach 700 µm on glass wool panels.
04 How can I measure coating quality?
This is an aspect that can primarily be evaluated subjectively. However, where rigidity is a required characteristic of the coated object, this technology enables high coating layer thicknesses (e.g. 700 g/m2 in the case of ceiling tiles) by using paints with 80% solids, leading to further benefits in terms of reduced drying costs. Constant coating thickness is also a key quality achieved with vacuum coating techniques, even in the case of complex profiles.
05 What are the consumption factors I need to take into account in a vacuum coating process?
The factors will depend on whether you are using UV-curable coating or water-based coating. UV Vacuum Coaters apply between 25 and 75 µm (1 to 3 mills) of coating per pass, whereas WB Vacuum Coaters apply between 25 and 150 µm (1 to 6 mills) of coating per pass. You will also need to consider electrical energy consumption and compressed air consumption.
06 What are the size limitations for pieces that will be vacuum coated?
The minimum length is 915 mm (36”) and the maximum width is 305 mm (12”). Any size between these two limits is possible.
07 How long does it take to clean a vacuum machine?

Cleaning times vary according to the size of the machine and the type of paint being used. Water-based paints require less time than viscous UV lacquers. On average, when changing profiles, it will take between 10 and 15 minutes. If you are also required to change colour, this will take up to 30 minutes.

08 Can coating consumption be controlled?
Yes. By adjusting the template opening, vacuum pressure and speed of the coating line, you can control the coating thickness, thereby affecting coating consumption. Paint viscosity is temperature-controlled in the case of UV lacquers and according to the formulation of water-based paints. This also affects overall consumption.
09 What do I need apart from the vacuum coating machine to complete the process?
To make the process smoother, you can add infeed and outfeed conveyors. In any case, our solution is a fully integrated one comprising material preparation, application and drying. Edge-coating units are often installed in existing double-end tenoners for more precise workpiece guidance and consequent absence of overspray.
10 How flexible is the machine?
As vacuum coating is suited for large volumes of the same or similar type of profile, flexibility is not a key feature of machine or process. When the profile changes, the user simply has to change the template or painting head.
11 Can we say that vacuum coating is a sustainable process?
Yes. As the system handling the vacuum coating process is fully encapsulated, zero coating waste is possible, making this one highly sustainable aspect. Furthermore, you can use solvent-free coatings and the design of vacuum coating systems today enables users to minimise energy consumption. Machines have a 1.2 kW power output.


Spray coating

01 On which materials can I spray coat?
Any material, bearing in mind two conditions.
  • That the coating must match the substrate material to ensure proper adhesion.
  • That the piece being coated must be able to pass through the machines/systems.
02 What are the advantages of spray coating?
Firstly, spray coating ensures all sides of the piece are covered. Secondly, the product shape is unimportant and, since it is not a contact-type coating, different tolerances between products are compensated for automatically.
03 How can I measure coating quality?
While quality is subjective, it is possible to measure the quantity of coating applied at each point. It's also possible to measure gloss or matt levels using appropriate instruments.
04 What are the consumption factors I need to take into account in a spray coating process?
Lacquer is the key factor to be monitored, as it is the most expensive aspect of the process. Any variations can make the process more or less sustainable and also have an impact on process quality.
05 How simple is it to use a spray coating machine?
This depends on the type of machine, the type of conveyor (paper or continuous belt) and the type of filtration (paper or water).
  • Those who opt for a paper conveyor machine will observe many similarities with manual coating methods: start-up, spray gun feeding, cleaning and replacing filters.
  • Those who go for a machine with continuous belt conveying will need to perform preparation and maintenance associated with the retrieval and cleaning trolley; nevertheless, these tasks are simple.
06 What's the difference between an anthropomorphic robot and a Cartesian robot?
Differences relate to the degree of freedom, the type/number of movements they can make and the angles they can achieve.
  • Anthropomorphic robot: more freedom, virtually unlimited 3-way movement. Unlimited spray gun positioning.
  • Cartesian robot: less freedom, but can accelerate and move much faster. Limited spray gun positioning.
07 How long does it take to clean a spray coating machine?
  • On machines with paper conveying and paper filters, very little time is needed.  All you need to do is clean the guns and pump, and replace and discard filters as necessary.
  • Continuous belt machines require more time at the end of the shift as maintenance tasks concerning the belt retrieval and cleaning device needed to be performed.
With paper-based filtration, the filters must be replaced; water-based filtration requires no maintenance as the system continuously "self-cleans" during operation.
08 Can I measure lacquer consumption on spray coating machines?
Thanks to flow control systems, you certainly can. However, the coating quality is not necessarily strictly linked to lacquer consumption.
09 I want to switch from manual coating to automatic coating, what do I need?
Space requirements are similar to those of a manual booth. All tasks can be performed by the same worker who, instead of coating, operates the machine.
10 Do spray coating machines need a lot of maintenance?
As with manual coating system, maintenance largely concerns the pump and spray guns (i.e. the coating application system).

In the case of a machine with continuous belt conveying, cleaning and retrieval system maintenance is also required.

Machines with water filtration will also require maintenance of the continuous filtration device.
11 Is there a maintenance service available in my area?
Our network of distributors and branches stretches across the globe. Finding the service you need in your country should be easy. Alternatively, we can send spare parts and technicians directly from our headquarters in just a few days.
12 Can I manage colour changes?
Yes, dedicated procedures mean they can be managed quickly on all our machines.
13 Can I manage programming of my workpieces easily?
In the case of oscillating spray machines, all you need to do is provide some parameters and, thanks to the incoming piece reading system, each piece is then coated according to the information entered.

With robots, different work modes are possible so it is necessary to define the way and the order in which you wish to execute strokes and whether to coat certain product parts or not. Programmed this way, each piece loaded and read by the reading system is automatically processed as per the saved information.
14 Are edges also spray coated?
Of course. This technology was specifically designed to coat surfaces and edges.
15 What sort of finishes can I achieve with a spray coating machine?

The range of finishes is practically unlimited, also because finishing is more closely linked to the product being coated.

16 What do I need apart from the spray coating machine?
It is advisable to have a drying system connected to the machine. This ensures more consistent results. It also lowers the percentage of waste compared to simple air drying, which involves some risk of contamination. What's more, some finishes require special drying conditions (temperature, air speed) so an oven is definitely recommended where certain finishes are needed.
17 How can I boost productivity?
By raising the number of machines or lines, and by increasing (within certain limits) the speed of the machine itself.
18 How flexible is the machine?
Extremely. Just replacing the product in the spray guns and making a few other adjustments can radically alter the coating. Flexibility is even more pronounced where paper conveying machines are used, as there are no tasks related to the lacquer retrieval and belt cleaning system.
19 Are sustainable coating machines available?
Sustainability varies from one machine to the next, but depends more on the actual coating process.
20 Can I get spare parts easily?
Yes. You can order spare parts by email or phone. You can also use cMaster, our dedicated spare parts ordering app.



01 What does digitizing my factory mean?
Firstly, digitizing your factory means converting production processes by moving away from traditional systems towards highly automated, interconnected ones that also act as a rich data source. As we see it, this digitization makes sense if it allows your company to remain competitive, cut costs and maximise profits.
02 What data is available to me? What do I need it for?
The available data ranges from traceability data - stored by our cTracker line supervisor which saves all events, alarms and plant parameters, associating them with production batches - to detailed data on individual machines (telemetry) and the production statistics managed by our IoT product, cMaster.
03 Can my competitors see my data?
Absolutely not! We use commercially available, secure, certified remote assistance software. Security assessments carried out together with our specialised partners ensure top-grade data confidentiality. They also ensure the data is readily available and safely stored.
04 Can machine downtimes be predicted?
There are several ongoing projects concerning analysis of the data collected by our Ubiquo software tools. The goal is to anticipate any problems and provide services that are both predictive and proactive:
- to improve performance
- to prevent finishing line breakdowns and stops
- to reduce spare part and finished product stocks.
05 How can I know whether the coating system will cause problems after assembly?
Our unique know-how allows us to process all operational data and extrapolate from it the tasks needed to pro-actively improve the output of coating processes and ensure their stability and repeatability.  Note also that our extensive experience in the field gives our solutions exceptional efficiency.
06 Is there something that allows me to monitor my coating process?
Of course. At all times cTracker, our line supervisor, lets you:
- set up and check the entire line from a single point
- trace workpieces on the line
- export alarms/production reports
- exchange information with your internal company systems.
07 How can I know whether the production process is working properly?
Our line supervisor, cTracker, provides you with an OEE/KPI section that lets you monitor line capacity and productivity. And you're not alone! We provide customers with expert technical support both locally and globally. A far-reaching network of branches, agents and affiliates provides authorised, highly qualified technical assistance. We also provide remote assistance by providing immediate answers to on-line questions, thus ensuring real-time situation monitoring and accurate diagnostics as regards both technical aspects and the process.
08 How can I get an overview of the whole line from a single point?
Our cTracker line supervisor has been specifically designed to control our machines from a single point on the line. In fact, on large-scale lines with multiple machines, it would be unthinkable to manage production changeovers and modify parameters or work recipes via the control panels on each individual machine. That's why the cTracker solution manages everything via a single screen at the beginning of the line.
09 How can I simulate my production process?
Simulation is a valuable tool, hence the introduction of a pre-sales service called cCloner. More specifically, this line simulator can:
- show a realistic 3D configuration of the line layout: a sound, reliable picture made up of measurements, 3D imaging and objective data.
- provide accurate line operation simulation: to prevent problems, avoid machine downtimes and have more general information right from the design stage.
- simulate real productivity and consumption: finding the best configuration gives you a realistic forecast of the situation, also in terms of productivity and energy/heat consumption.
10 Is there an alarm system to tell me if something is wrong?
Yes. Alarms are an essential part of the machines as they provide information vital to the prevention of downtimes and the easy pinpointing of problems. Together, the individual machine control panels, cTracker line supervisor and IoT cMaster ensure you have detailed alarm lists available at all times. With cMaster you can also get automatic notifications on your mobile devices to keep you informed wherever you are.
11 Can I buy spare parts directly via the machine?
Yes, cMaster now features a Spare Parts section (available on enabled machines). This feature lets you put in a request directly via the virtual Web App cart, thus speeding up the spare parts management and retrieval process.
12 Is there a plant maintenance planning tool?
The IoT cMaster tool features a Maintenance section where you're offered maintenance services, grouped by function. The software manages scheduling and reminds you of deadlines according to actual machine running times.


Industrial Digital Printing

01 Which substrates can I print on?

Many! Each requiring its own specific pre-treatment, curing level, finishing etc.
Examples: MDF and other wood derivatives – fibre cement – PVC – SPC – WPC – ABS – PS – Aluminium and other metals – glass – leather.

02 Can I decide exactly what design I want?
Yes! There are virtually no limits.
You may need to consider the following factors in some cases:
  1. Printing resolution will affect minimum printable detail.
  2. Specific surface characteristics of the substrate.
03 Can I print on raised panels as well as flat panels?
Yes, but the quality may not be quite as good.

Flat panels are perfect for inkjet technology because the substrate is always kept very close to the print heads.

You can also print on slightly raised panels if you follow a few basic rules:
  1. Ink droplets will not reach vertical or severely inclined surfaces.
  2. Print heads must be less than 7 mm from the surface to avoid blurred printing.
Strategies to overcome the above involve larger ink droplets, but result in grainier effects.

Our technical experts can evaluate such issues on a case by case basis.
04 Can I print on edges or profiles?
Yes, you can print on both.

We have developed a digital printer for edge foils handling thicknesses from 0.1 to 2 mm and a useful printing width of up to 500 mm (19.7”).

Considering the issues answered in questions 1 and 3, direct digital printing on profiles is possible.

We have developed a digital printer for skirtings and other profile types. Preparation and finishing must be defined case by case.
05 What’s the largest size I can run through a digital printer?
Depending on the printer model in our range, we can ensure the following maximum useful widths:
Single-pass up to 1540 mm (60.6”).
Multi-pass up to 2500 mm (98.4”)
06 How do I measure the quality of the print and what will my customers expect?
We can only measure objective quality. Subjective quality is a question of taste.

Here are some objective factors:
  1. Resolution or dpi (dots per inch) is a measurable value. Our range of industrial digital printers work at resolutions of 400x400 dpi or 400x800 dpi (where 800 dpi is parallel to the direction pieces travel in single-pass printers)
  2. Colours are a measurable factor using a spectrophotometer, providing the area measured is large enough for the sensor. The naked eye evaluates colour more effectively, but it is subjective.
  3. Image sharpness will also depend on the base coat and printer set-up.
  4. Colour shades and contrast will be affected by the layers of top coats
07 Is digital print quality constant over time?
One key issue is consistent acceptable quality over time.
This can be achieved by implementing the following activities:
  1. Check hardware set-up daily: align the print heads, clean the nozzles.
  2. Check software set-up regularly: ensure nozzle compensation and shade uniformity across the conveyor.
  3. Ensure correct workflow and follow it strictly at all times: coating process control, colour profiling, image management, raster image processing (RIP).
  4. Define and perform Print Quality Assessment & Maintenance daily.
08 Can I print single pieces or must I print in batches?
Whereas multi-pass printers generally print single pieces, our single-pass printers also print in “batch one” mode.
To maintain excellent productivity, we have made it very quick to switch from one design/pattern to the next on our single-pass solutions.
09 Is 3D digital printing possible?

Firstly, this does not mean “rapid prototyping”. It means creating a superficial 3D effect, a texture.
Yes, it is possible.
Achieved digitally on single-pass and multi-pass printers, there are 3 methods we advise to obtain different characteristics, all of which create a 3D effect. Depending on the end usage of the finished product, we would recommend one of these methods.
The first two methods are suitable for single-pass lines; both are "subtractive methods" (meaning that the "grooves" are obtained displacing/removing part of the high-resistant top-coat); the two methods differs for the way the grooves are obtained, one by displacing/rejecting the high-resistant top-coating, the other removing the high-resistant topcoating by brushing with suitable brushes the coating in the "to-be grooves" areas.
The third method is suitable for multi-pass machines and is an "additive method" (meaning that the "reliefs" are obtained by adding a specific ink, like in the additive manufacturing processes).

10 What are the key benefits of industrial digital printing?
  1. Flexibility. It is simple to change from one design to the next as often as required.
  2. Unit cost is in no way connected to batch size.
  3. Quick response to fast-changing market demands and fashions.
  4. Very short lead time from the idea to the first sample.
  5. Ability to test countless variants, evaluate and pinpoint market trend instantly.
11 What are the disadvantages of industrial digital printing?
  1. Handling large volumes. This technique is not for mass production.
  2. Economies of scale. Unit cost does not drop in line with higher volumes.
  3. Learning curve. Many end-users are at the start of the learning curve and need to develop some skills and knowledge to exploit the technologies. We can support you.
12 Which applications are best suited to digital printing?
  • Flooring
  • Panel decoration
  • Door decoration
  • Edge-banding
  • Fibre cement decoration
  • Profiles
  • etc.


3D spray coating

01 Which materials are suitable for coating?
Any material.
02 What shapes can my items have?
For supported (“flat”) items, any shape is acceptable but with two prevailing dimensions. This allows the item to be fed through the line/machine and guarantees an acceptable degree of item stability.
03 Can items of different shapes be sprayed at the same time?
Yes, this is possible.
04 What kind of robots are needed for 3D item coating?
Cartesian or anthropomorphic robots.
05 What should I expect in terms of consumption?
The main consumable requirements will concern coating products and some compressed air and electricity.
06 How easy is it to start up a coating machine?
It depends on the machine, the type of control and the operator's level of expertise. Generally speaking, it is quite easy.
07 How long does it take to clean a machine?
Cleaning times vary according to requirements. End-of-shift cleaning, week-end cleaning and extensive cleaning before a prolonged idle time must be scheduled. The end-of-shift cleaning time, for instance, depends on the product conveying systems (paper or belt), and on the type of overspray filtration; it usually ranges between a few minutes (12-15) up to 25-30 minutes.
08 Is a coating machine very maintenance-intensive?
Usually, it isn't, especially if the machine is correctly maintained and cleaned every time it is used. It is a general truth that daily care often extends the machine's life and prevents malfunctioning.
09 Can I manage colour changes?
They can be managed both with native machine proprietary hardware and software and with add-on systems by other suppliers/manufacturers.
10 Can I easily manage the programming of my workpieces?
Programming management is straightforward.
11 What finishes can be achieved?
Any finish is possible. However, a given finish can or cannot be achieved depending on factors that are not always and not only linked with the coating machine. A correct preparation of the material is necessary, and very important; proper drying is just as important.
12 What do I need besides the coating machine?
Automatic conveying, loading and unloading systems can be required - in addition to sanding machines, cleaning systems or machines, drying ovens, etc.
13 How can I boost productivity?
By increasing the output rate if the line allows it, or by increasing the filling degree of the line.
14 How flexible is the machine?
Very flexible, it can work with different coating systems (guns) and with different products, using separate circuits to avoid contamination.


Overhead conveyors

01 What materials can I use overhead coating solutions on?
Practically any material can be coated.
02 What are the advantages of vertical door and window coating?
Given their considerable size, being able to hang doors and windows is essential. Moreover, overhead lines allow both sides to coated.
03 How can I measure workpiece coating quality?
While quality is entirely subjective, using an automatic system guarantees coating application consistency/precision on the produced lots.
04 How can I make my window coating process more efficient?
While an automatic coating system ensures steady product consumption and ensures application consistency throughout the day, a manual system may cause significant variations in terms of both productivity and quality. This variation is the main source of low coating process efficiency.
What's more, our software enhances efficiency, making the operator's work easier.
05 How easy is it to programme a coating robot?
It couldn't be simpler. Our 2D or 3D scanner captures images of the piece to be coated as it passes. The software then automatically generates the trajectories needed for optimal piece coating.
06 How long does it take to clean a machine?
That depends on the machine in use. As a rough guide, from 10 minutes for the simplest up to half an hour for the most complex. In the case of a window coating line, there will be several machines performing different applications.
07 Can coating consumption be controlled?
Yes, with the aid of additional systems.
08 Can workpiece dimensions be checked?
Yes, by using a specific 2D and 3D scanner.
09 Can I coat my windows assembled or disassembled?
Coating can be done either way without any shape or size restrictions. It's this aspect, in fact, that makes overhead lines so advantageous.
10 What do I need to know to start coating?
Little previous experience is needed to start coating. However, close consultation with specialists is essential to find the process that's right for you, based on, for example, productivity goals and the material to be coated. What's more, our solutions require little worker supervision.
11 How long will a coating system last?
We have plants that have been in regular operation for over 25 years.
12 Can I limit colour changeover downtimes?
Yes. Colour changes are done almost exclusively while the machine is running.
13 Can I manage programming of my workpieces easily?
Trajectories are programmed automatically by our machine control software. The only information that needs to be added concerns the speed/distance/angle of the spray guns.
14 Are the edges coated too?
15 Can I coat disassembled musical instruments?
Depending on the type of instrument, they can be coated either assembled or disassembled.
16 What do I need apart from the coating machine?
Both the coating and the spraying equipment are usually supplied. A sanding solution will also be needed to complete the process.
17 How can I boost productivity?
Automatic spraying solutions (e.g. iGiotto or reciprocators) are ideal for this. Manually coating pieces that can be as large as 5000 x H3000 mm is problematic and results in low productivity. Manual coating also means poor application consistency and excessive or uncontrollable product consumption. This affects the final quality of the coating and the piece.
18 How flexible is the line?
A line must be flexible. It must be designed according to customers' needs and their available space.
When it comes to shape, size and thickness, overhead coating poses no particular limits. In fact, the same station can even be used to coat 2 pieces in different ways.
19 How many people are needed to run the line?
From a minimum of 2 people for a simple line, up to a maximum of 4 for more complex ones.


Curtain coating

01 Which materials are suitable for curtain coating?
Curtain coating is suitable for all materials such as wood and wood derivatives, glass, cork, plastic materials, fibre cement, leather, cardboard, metal, etc. Curtain coaters work panels with flat or slightly raised surfaces.
02 Who are the main users of curtain coating technologies?
Curtain coating is based on a highly effective technology, mainly used by manufacturers of flat cabinet doors, parquet manufacturers, manufacturers of panels of various materials and door manufacturers.
03 What are the advantages of curtain coating?
Curtain coating is one of the best performing technologies in terms of finish quality. It also ensures remarkable advantages in terms of both flexibility and productivity. In curtain coating, all types of paint in the whole available colour range can be used.
04 How can I rate the quality of curtain coating?
The quality of curtain coating is subjective, as is the case with spray and roller coating technologies. However, opacity, gloss, and degree of application can all be rated.
05 What should I expect in terms of consumption?
Thanks to digital technologies, today every step of the coating process can be monitored in terms of product quantity applied by each individual machine. Normally, curtain coaters are installed both at the end of finishing lines and as primer application machines, therefore, the applied quantities may vary according to the type of substrate to be processed. Additionally, consumption of cleaning solvents should also be factored in, in an efficiency-boosting perspective.
06 What items are suitable for curtain coating?
Curtain coating is particularly suitable for painting flat cabinet doors, parquet flooring, flat doors and also for coating panels made of wood and wood derivatives, glass, cork, plastic materials, fibre cement, leather, cardboard and metal.
07 What types of coating products are best suited for curtain coating?
All types of paint can be used for curtain coating: water-based, polyurethane and UV, clear or pigmented, matt, semi-gloss or glossy paints.

To date, the most commonly used types as both primers and finishes applied with curtain coaters are high quality polyurethane paints and UV paints. For parquet coating, paints containing aluminium dioxide, corundum or glass microspheres can be applied, to achieve high surface abrasion strength.
08 Is it possible to control consumption in the curtain coating process?
In curtain coating, viscosity values can be kept under control with dedicated equipment, in order to ensure greater paint stability.
In most cases, weight checks are performed in a traditional way.
09 Which machines are best suited for curtain coating?
Curtain coaters may have a different number of coating heads (one-head coaters and two-head coaters), depending on the products to be applied. For example, if two-component polyester products are used, two coating heads are always required for “wet on wet” application.

There are also Matic model long-bench curtain coater versions, suitable for preparing packs of panels and designed for working in line with vertical ovens. These curtain coaters have three independent speeds: loading, coating and unloading.
10 What do I need besides the curtain coater to complete my line?
A curtain coater is a machine that is added to a finishing line as the last coating machine, although in very specific cases, it can be used for primer application. Like in all coating lines, depending on the types of material to be processed, conveyors, sanding machines, brushing machines for cleaning purposes and drying ovens (based on different technology depending on the type of coating product used) are also needed.
11 How can I increase the output rate of my coating line?
Curtain coaters are the highest output coating machines, with speed ranging from 60 to 100 metres/min. To further increase productivity, the efficiency of all the other machines making up the painting line, including ovens, should be maximised.
12 What is the degree of flexibility of curtain coating machines?
Curtain coaters are highly flexible, both in terms of product quantity to be applied, and in terms of application options and different positioning along the coating line.



01 What does profile-wrapping mean?
Profile wrapping is a process by which a decorative surface is laminated onto a substrate in linear form. This is done by means of a profile-wrapping machine.
02 Why was the process invented?
Several decades before a decorative surface was manually laminated, mainly wood veneer, onto a substrate. The increasing demand for furniture at the beginning of the 60s was the reason profile-wrapping machines were developed.
Beyond that the pressure at costs and prices as well as the requirements of the customers regarding the surface design played a substantial role.
One of the first such machines was built by Mr. Reinhard Düspohl.
03 Which industries use this technology?
  • Industries processing derived timber products
  • Woodworking industry
  • Industries processing wood composite materials
  • Plastics industry
  • Metalworking industry
04 Which substrates can be laminated?
  • Particle board
  • Medium density fibreboard (MDF)
  • High density fibreboard (HDF)
  • Plywood
  • Extruded wood (plastics+sawdust)

  • PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
  • PP (polypropylene)
  • ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)
  • Expanded polystyrene
  • and others
  • Aluminium
  • Steel
  • Others
05 What are typical wrapping or overlay materials?
Wood veneer

The wood veneers are divided into two major groups: rotary cut veneer and sliced veneer. Sliced veneer is the most commonly used veneer in profile wrapping. The complexity of the core material dictates the quality of veneer to be used.
Manufactured fleece-backed veneer, as a fleece is glued on the back of the veneer. The veneer becomes more flexible due to the glued-on fleece.
The quality of symmetric and asymmetric finger-joint veneer is visible after the lacquering process. In the case of poor quality, two different pigmentations are visible. Different pigmentations are avoidable using veneer with an aluminium indicator.
Veneer with an aluminium indicator is always in roll form. An aluminium strip is applied at the joint between the veneer sheets. This type of veneer needs to be ordered with a specified sheet length within the roll of veneer. The sheet length needs to be 1’’ longer then the profile it will be applied to allowing for some length variations in the substrate. The advantage of the aluminium indicator is, that the finger-joint strip will not be placed on the profile and ruin its aesthetics. This is accomplished by using sensors on the machine to pinpoint the position of the aluminium indicator at the joint. The signal is used to position the substrate with the aluminium indicator in the veneer roll. Doing it this way, the beginning of the veneer sheet is certain to be synchronous with the beginning of the substrate.


Different paper types are available for profile wrapping. Paper for profile wrapping is usually made like a sandwich. It starts out with the base paper that is also referred to as the backer. The backer is available in different colours and different weights. The second layer is the decorative layer. The decorative layer can be of a solid colour or with a printed pattern. Usually 30g paper, this decorative layer is laminated to the base paper. The colour of the finished paper depends on the colour of the base paper. These papers can range from 30 to 300 g and more. Most commonly used papers are 60 or 80 g papers. They can be wrapped around very complex profiles and at the same time they are not as fragile as 30 g paper. Paper can be wrapped around sharp edges (with the exception of very heavy papers).


Laminates are decorative surface papers impregnated with melamine resins and then pressed over Kraft paper core sheets impregnated with phenolic resin. These sheets are then bonded at pressures exceeding 200 Kg/cm2 at temperatures approaching 150°C. Finished sheets are trimmed and the backs are sanded to facilitate bonding. Laminates are more difficult to wrap in comparison with wrapping paper, because papers are more flexible. The variety of laminates ranges from high-pressure to low-pressure to continuous laminates. There is a difference in the way theses laminates are manufactured as well as in the flexibility of the material. Sharp edges are not recommended. For the flooring industry the laminates are coated with aluminium oxide.
In case of profile-wrapping with laminates an extremely long wrapping zone is necessary. The temperature of the laminate, if corners are to be wrapped, must reach 300° C in the relevant area.

Vinyl (Films)

There are many different types of vinyl available. The most commonly used materials are hard / soft PVC and PP. Vinyl can be of a solid colour or have a printed pattern. Different topcoats are available for interior or exterior products.
No special requirements.
The vinyl has to be durable against ultraviolet rays. A special vinyl with a wood-like surface (veneer characteristics) and aluminium-like surface (aluminium characteristics) is available for exterior application, which is mainly used by the PVC window industry.
The newest development is a thermoplastic film for the decorative finishing of windows, doors and other building elements. The film is also suitable for regions with harsh climates, because of a higher weather and temperature stability. Also under difficult conditions the foil possesses outstanding colour and gloss stability. Before glue application, the processing temperature of “Renolit-Fast” has to be 80°C with strict tolerance levels.
06 What are the customary adhesive types used for wrapping?
Hot melt glue

Today hot melt glue is the most common glue used in the profile wrapping industry. Main advantages in comparison with other glue types are: high combination potential between materials, higher transport speed of the profile wrapping machine possible.
The difference between filled and unfilled hot melt glue is not visible. Only the weight differs. Filled glue is heavier than water. We strongly advise against using filled glue for a slot coater.
The difference between “non humidity-reactive” and “humidity-reactive” adhesive is that humidity-reactive hot melt glue is received during the interlacing of a chemical compound (isocyanates) with the humidity from the air. After the interlacing is finished (approx. 3-5 days) it is impossible to re-activate and/or liquefy the glue. The developed adhesive compounds possess extreme temperature and water resistance.

Non-humidity-reactive glue:

EVA (Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate)

By the abbreviation EVA we mean a copolymer, which is made of ethyls and vinyl acetate; for over 30 years the basis polymer for hot melt glues. The cost/performance ratio of EVA is good. Disadvantages of this product group are: limited resistance to heat (re-activation temperature: 80 – 100°C) and humidity (no exterior use).

APAO (Amorphous-Poly-Alpha-Olefin), abbreviation PO (Polyolefin)

This abbreviation stands for several terms: polyethylene(PE), polypropylene (PP), polybutylene (PB) et al. For adhesive production these pure polyolefins are only negligibly suitable. Addressing a wider interest are the amorphous polyolefins manufactured in a special procedure as well as their co- and terpolymeres, which is then commercialised under the comprehensive term amorphous-poly-alpha-olefin (APAO) or in short polyolefin (PO). The main advantage in comparison with EVA is superior heat resistance (re-activation temperature 110 – 130°C). PO is not suitable for exterior applications. High temperature resistance and relevant demand for high melting energy reduce the capacities of all available melting aggregates up to 50 %.

Humidity-reactive glue:

PUR (Polyurethane-Reactive)

The abbreviation PUR stands for single component, humidity-reactive polyurethane hotmelts. The PUR glue type fulfils the highest requirements regarding temperature-, water-, steam -, detergent- and solvent-resistance. The main advantages compared with EVA and PO are: High heat and water resistance. PUR adhesives are suitable for interior and exterior use without exception (all materials). PUR glue comes in block form (blocks weighing 2 - 18 Kg) and barrel form with 200 Kg/barrel. One producer offers PUR-granulate too. The glue in block form has a smaller surface compared with granulate, which reduces the danger of humidity interlacing. Due to the comparatively low working temperature, PUR is most suitable for thin thermoplastic films.

APAO-R (Amorphous-Poly-Alpha-Olefin-Reactive)

More details regarding the abbreviation-part APAO see APAO. The additional R means reactive. The APAO-R glue is based on polyolefin with reactive characteristics (see PUR). The adhesive is suitable for interior and exterior use and comes in block form. The APAO-R glue is used more rarely.

Water-based glue
PVA, PVAc, ...,

Water-based glue, with water portion amounting to up to 50 %, has some disadvantages compared with hotmelt glue. In production the energy consumption is very high and the production speed very low, because the water portion must evaporate. You have reduced possibilities in wrapping (only suitable for substrates with a simple profile).

Solvent-based glue
Polyurethane, ...,

Due to new emission-protection-acts it is not recommended to invest in a machine/line, which runs with a solvent-based glue.
07 How can you calculate the amount of adhesive needed for production?

Width of overlay material in metres X Transport speed in m/min X 60 Minutes X Grammage per sqm in Kg/sqm = Mass of glue in Kg/h.


Overlay material 250 mm = 0.25 m X 40 m/min X 60 minutes X 50g/sqm = 0.05 Kg/sqm = 30 Kg/h.

If one wants to use more than ⅔ of the capacity of our melting units, we recommend making tests. The melting capacity varies dependent on glue type and manufacturer.
08 What are examples of profile-wrapped end products?

The following end products may be made of the listed material combinations. Please keep in mind, that the table below reflects only a fraction of material combinations. Other combinations are possible.
The decision as to which adhesive should be used also depends on the temperature influences on the transportation route or ultimate destination of the wrapped end product. Therefore, the material combination specified before can change.

Substrates that are not made from derived timber products, plywood, wood or extruded wood (non-wood substrates) may require some treatment prior to wrapping. In any case the selected glue manufacturer should be consulted to establish a recommended treatment.

09 When are cutting and gluing necessary in product finishing?
Cutting and gluing processes are carried out in replacement for something other than coating; product veneering is achieved, in this case, with plastic material films.
10 What are the advantages of cutting and gluing?
The simplicity of the cutting and gluing process compared to paint coating and the high output rate achievable are two major advantages to take into account when considering whether to choose this technique for your MDF product veneering.
11 Which specific machines are needed for cutting and gluing?
To get started, a press is enough.
12 What do I need to know about the cutting and gluing process?
In the cutting and gluing process, the type of glue should be chosen according to the end use of the component and the performance goals to be obtained. For example, the glue type changes according to whether an item is to be used in the bathroom, kitchen or living room.

In addition, the desired degree of finish and gloss must be evaluated. Finally, the required output should be considered to determine the type and number of presses, and the number of application and (possibly) cutting machines needed.


01 Which materials are suitable for cutting and gluing?
Generally, cutting and gluing are suitable for items made of MDF.